Rail lines are the main means of transportation for such products as cocoa, logs and sawn timber; they are also widely used for passenger service. There were 953 km of railway in 2006, with the main line linking Sekondi-Takoradi with Accra and Kumasi.
Ghana had about 62,221 km of roads in 2002, of which about 9,955 km were paved. Good roads link Accra with Tema, Kumasi, Takoradi and Akosombo. In 2000, Ghana had 106,600 private automobiles and 142,300 commercial vehicles. The government transport department operates a cross-country bus service; municipal transport facilities are available in all main towns.
The Black Star Line, owned by the government, operates a cargo-passenger service to Canada, the US, the UK, Italy and West Africa. In 2008, Ghana had a merchant shipping fleet comprising 4 vessels. Lake transport service between Akosombo and Yapei is operated by Volta Lake Transport Co.
Ghana has no natural harbours. An artificial deepwater port was built at Sekondi-Takoradi in the 1920s and expanded after World War II. A second deepwater port, at Tema, was opened in 1962, and in 1963 further extensions were made. At a few smaller ports, freight is moved by surfboats and lighters. The major rivers and Lake Volta provide about 1,293 km of navigable waterways.
In 2007, there were 12 airports in Ghana, 7 of which had paved runways. Accra's international airport serves intercontinental as well as local West African traffic. Smaller airports are located at Sekondi-Takoradi, Kumasi, Tamale and Sunyani. Ghana Airways, owned by the government, operates domestic air services and flights to other African countries and to Germany, London and Rome. In 2001, 301,100 passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international flights.
Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m 1
1,524 to 2,437 m 4
914 to 1,523 m 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways
914 to 1,523 m 3
under 914 m 2 (2007)
oil 13 km; refined products 316 km (2007)
total 953 km
narrow gauge 953 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
total 62,221 km
paved 9,955 km
unpaved 52,266 km (2006)
note 168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta (2007)
by type petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3
foreign-owned 1 (Brazil 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals